Saturday, May 23, 2020

Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program - 981 Words

D.A.R.E. When I was in 5th grade, I clearly remember when Officer Garcia came to my elementary school; he was a tall policeman whom I admired so greatly and listened to with such interest. He made us sign a pledge not to use drugs and he would talk to us about how to resist peer pressure and live a drug-free life. This education program is called Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (D.A.R.E.) This program uses law enforcement officers to educate students from kindergarten to 12th grade about saying no to drugs and gang violence. It is the most widely used school based program in our country that focuses on helping tackle down this problem. However, between 1983 and 2009, scientific studies showed that this program was ineffective in reducing the use of drugs in teens. Back in 1994, The American Journal of Public Health used meta-analytical techniques to review D.A.R.E evaluations, and found the same problem; the effect size was very small (ajph). In 2014, the Scientific American posted an article stating that scientists have been working with the D.A.R.E. program and together had formed a new curriculum. This curriculum reduced the 45-minute informative lectures, and instead focused more on hands-on activates that built communication skills as well as decision-making skills. They new curriculum called â€Å"keepin’ it Real† showed more effectiveness when conducting s study of a group of adolescents who were involved in the program and a control group of students whoShow MoreRelated The Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program Essay958 Words   |  4 PagesThe Drug Abuse Resistance Education program kn own as D.A.R.E has become a very widespread and popular program throughout the United States. The program appeals to all ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic lines, which is a large part of the reason why the DARE program has grown exponentially. The program’s basic premise was meant to introduce kids to the danger of drugs, before the drugs got to them. The implementation of the DARE program appeared to be what America needed to begin to put a dent inRead MoreDrug Abuse Resistance Education Program1671 Words   |  7 Pageson drugs was declared in 1971 by President Richard Nixon and since that day over a trillion dollars have been spent on the prohibition of drugs in the United States (Branson, 2012). Yet, despite this excessive spending, the U.S. has the highest rates of illicit drug use in the world (Branson, 2012). Although much of this money has been spent on law enforcement agents and prison systems, some funds have been used to develop drug prevention programs. The Dr ug Abuse Resistance Education Program (D.ARead MoreThe Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program1097 Words   |  5 PagesThe Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program also known, as the D.A.R.E program is a worldwide school-based program that helps reach out to children (elementary, middle, and high school) to prevent drug and violence abuse. This program does not discriminate in any case, therefore it consists of children all different colors, shapes, and sizes. Since drug and violence abuse was rising at incredible increments in the 1970’s and early 80’s, a Los Angeles Police Chief and the Los Angeles School DistrictRead MoreNational Symbol For The Drug Abuse Resistance Education Programs949 Words   |  4 PagesD.A.R.E. program has become the national symbol for the Drug Abuse Resistance Education programs, which are partnered by experience police officers, parents and schools throughout the United States. All D.A.R.E. officers are those who are members of agencies t hat share the responsibility protecting the trademark mission that is D.A.R.E. This program has been taught in all 50 states and at least 49 countries. During the late 1970’s and early 1980’s there was an unparalleled rise with drug among ourRead MoreDoes The Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program Work?1810 Words   |  8 PagesDoes the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program Work? D.A.R.E., the acronym for Drug Abuse Resistance Education is a program that educates young children in elementary schools, middle schools and high schools intended for students in Kindergarten through to the 12th grade to prevent and decline drug and alcohol abuse, peer pressure, violence and many other potential future dangers for children. The program consists of lessons and activities that involve more participation, active learning, supplementalRead MoreDrug Prevention And Education : America s Largest And Longest Running Programs Essay985 Words   |  4 PagesWhen it comes to drug prevention and education, it must differ and be carefully designed depending on the age group and other contributing factors to drug use/abuse. One of the world’s largest and longest running programs has had a great impact on society, both nationally and globally. Even if someone has never attended a seminar or been taught a class in their school, a majority of people know or at least have hear d of the D.A.R.E. program. This program has a humble beginning and a positive missionRead MoreWhat Is Reducing Crime Through A Targeted Literacy Program830 Words   |  4 Pagesthrough a Targeted Literacy Program† as the sole recipient of our funds to combat youth drug crime in our community. While all three proposals gave strong arguments as to why their organization should receive our funds, programs similar to that stated in proposal two by Marcia Brady, John Walton, and Samantha Stephens have shown more success in the reduction of drug related crimes when compared to the ‘law and order’ techniques used by the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) which is described inRead MoreEssay about drugs1091 Words   |  5 Pages Throughout history, America has been fighting against drug and alcohol abuse in teens and adults. Many ways companies and anti drug groups try to prevent drug and alcohol abuse is through education in school systems and out of school systems. They teach young students about drugs and alcohol before they risk being around them, and they teach older students about drugs while they are around in their daily lives. Are these education programs really necessary? That’s the question many people ask, andRead MoreSchool Based Drug Use Prevention Programs1333 Words   |  6 PagesSchool-based drug use prevention programs have been an important part of the United State’s anti drug campaign since the late 70’s. Although there have been many different programs of all shapes and sizes, none have been bigger or more iconic than the D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program. D.A.R.E. was created in 1983 by the Los Angeles Police Department and the Los Angeles Unified School District. D.A.R.E. uses specially trained law enforcement officers to teach drug use preventionRead MorePersuasive Speech : Public Speaking944 Words   |  4 PagesHekanne Simbolon Final Speech Persuasive Speech Public Speaking Is the D.A.R.E. Program effective? I. Introduction Class Poll: How many of you have been in or heard of the D.A.R.E. Program? Now, keep your hands raised if you think the D.A.R.E. Program has prevented either yourself or other people you know from violence, drinking, or drugs? Tell the story about when the D.A.R.E. Program visited my elementary school. While this week long event was fun as a kid, its information doesn’t affect most

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Music Censorship - 1092 Words

Although is clearly states in the first amendment that Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people to peaceably assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances, censorship in America still exists in a big way. Music censorship is the term used to describe the act of editing, altering, or preventing the listener from hearing the music as the artist created it in order to either deny certain information or to act as a moral gatekeeper of potentially harmful material (http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~barndollar/courses/spring98/students/fabfive/index.html). The Censorship of†¦show more content†¦Consequently, approximately 1,400 stores dropped the album. Many major retailers such as Woolworths and K-mart will not purchase, and therefore not display, an album with any kind of parental advisory sticker on it. While it is true that legally these labels do not prohibit sales to anyone, the labels amount to an elegant form of censorship, elegant because it is censorship made to look like consumer information. (1) As controversial as records like Ice T and other artists who use either swears or sexually explicit material are, artistic pieces no matter what kink of message they send, or however unpopular they may be, are still protected by the first amendment to the constitution. The people who vote for and pass the laws prohibiting free speech are taking it upon themselves what they think is moral and right for the rest of the country. I feel I can make up my own mind about what type of music I listen to, how about you? One organization claiming to protect the children is the Parents Music Resource Center. At the center of the music labeling controversy, the P.M.R.C., feels that current levels of violence, racism, brutality towards women, drug and alcohol glamorization in music, lyrics, videos and stag e shows need to be addressed through public discussion and debate(Hull 23). The P.M.R.C. hopes to prohibit the sale of records to minors that contain lyrics about sex, drugs and alcohol, murder or suicide(Weinfeld 46). If that were the case, even the bible may beShow MoreRelatedCensorship And Censorship Of Music1544 Words   |  7 PagesThroughout the years, music has evolved and transformed in many ways. However, there are restrictions in today’s music, otherwise known as, censorships. A crisis has emerged concerning the issue of censorship. This argument consists of two possible stances: one, supporting the continuation of censorship, and two, eliminating the status quo of censorships in the music industry. There have been countless debates and arguments regarding the issues of censorship ever since the U.S. Congress passed theRead MoreEssay on Music Censorship1049 Words   |  5 PagesMusic Censorship   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Today, in the 1990s, citizens in our society are being bombarded with obscene material from every direction. From the hate lyrics of Guns N Roses to the satanic lyrics of Montley Crue and Marilyn Manson to the sexually explicit graphical content of todays movies, the issue is how much society is going to permit and where we, as a society, should we draw the line. The freedom of speech has always been considered a right, but that doesnt mean that you can shout, FireRead MoreCensorship in Music Essays1076 Words   |  5 PagesCensorship in Music Censorship in music has been a major problem plaguing America since the early nineteen forties. It came to a head during the nineteen sixties with the Vietnam War and the hippie movement. During the nineteen seventies and eighties heavy metal and hard rock were getting the brunt of the censorship heat. Now in the nineteen nineties the major focus of censorship is rap; primarily gangster rap. Some of the main factors of music in general that cause legal ramifications are sexualRead MoreThe Problem Of Music Censorship1280 Words   |  6 PagesAttention Getter: Imagine yourselves listening to music at a party, you’re jumping around yelling, screaming, and majority of the time singing or rapping along to whatever song is playing. Now imagine every other word, or whole verses in the song getting bleeped out frequently because of the message it presents even though you have the right to listen to whatever you so desire. This is the problem of music censorship we all face today. B. Relevance: BeingRead MoreMusic Censorship Essay625 Words   |  3 PagesMusic Censorship Since the being of time people have been making and listening to music. Music has been considered the best way to express ourselves. The Bible even talks about how music was used to praise God. Music has been used for all type of things ranging from to getting a girl to notice guy, trying to get over a broken heart, or maybe losing a love one. Now society says that music has become too violent and sexually oriented. Many people have different point of view on this topic someRead More Music Censorship Essay640 Words   |  3 Pagesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Why is it that when a person that listens to music that may promote violence and contains â€Å"objectionable† lyrics does a bad thing, families are quick to point out that it was external materials such as the music that influenced the person to do it? nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;This is the controversy over music censorship. Music censorship is the attempt or action taken by any agency to limit or hold back anything in music that a community may find offensive to its beliefs or valuesRead MoreEssay on Censorship of Music1406 Words   |  6 PagesCensorship of Music In todays society, all types of music artists are expressing their views, opinions and feelings in their songs about what they see and what they know. This is on of the great things about this country, the freedom to express yourself. It is not fair, nor is it constitutional that music should be censored in anyway. It is not only rap music trying to be censored it is in all types of music. They are taking away their rights and it isnt fair. As reported in the New York TimesRead More Music Censorship Essay3364 Words   |  14 Pagesfuss about? Censorship, Government officials, and raving mad protesters alike have been trying to stop the expressive creativity in everything from rap music to Mark Twain. Censorship in music is a topic that has brought about much controversy in the past two decades. There have been many different arguments on the topic, however the question still remains as if it should be censored or it should not be censored. In Paul Blanshard’s book The Right To Read: The Battle Against Censorship, he speaksRead MoreMusic Censorship Essay2897 Words   |  12 PagesCensorship in Music When listening to the radio, most people come across a song that has been changed from its original version, whether certain words are beeped out, or a string of lyrics are replaced altogether. This is censorship, and it is very common on the radio. It is also very controversial. People don’t agree what should be censored or if anything should be censored at all. However, we believe that censorship is a good thing. Censorship allows offensive music to be altered so that it isRead More Music Censorship Essay2636 Words   |  11 Pageslyrics. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Since the dawn of musical expression, there have been people trying to stop or hinder the constitutional right to listen and enjoy music of all forms. There were ordinary, everyday people during the infancy of Rock N’ Roll in the 1960’s who made it their mission in life to stop so-called â€Å"obscene† music like the Beatles song â€Å"Lucy In the Sky With Diamonds,† from polluting our airwaves and minds. These groups succeeded in banning some songs from the radio, but most

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Obama Victory Speech 2008 Free Essays

In Obama’s speech, he uses many inclusive pronouns such as ‘we’ and ‘our’. This shows that they are all the same; by doing this it creates a sense of unity among the audience. This is effective because it gets the audience on his side; if he used exclusive pronouns such as ‘you’, it would make the audience feel less united. We will write a custom essay sample on Obama Victory Speech 2008 or any similar topic only for you Order Now He also says ‘America can change’, by doing this he personifies and metonymies ‘America’. This is effective as it makes the people think about what he means by ‘America’ in that context, he could have easily said the ‘people of America’ but that would be very dull. We also see here again that he uses ‘America’ in a united sense. This all links in with the semantic field of the speech, of ‘the American Dream’, which is all based on peace and unity among the people of America. Another technique Obama uses are exophoric references and anecdotes, such as â€Å"She’s a lot like the millions of others who stood in line to make their voices heard in this election except for one thing – Ann Nixon cooper is 106 years old. †This is effective in the speech as help explain the point Obama makes to the audience. It is also something the audience can relate to . He also waits until right at the end to say â€Å"Ann Nixon cooper is 106 years old,† this turns a sentence about someone ordinary into someone extraordinary. Apart from the general references he makes, there are also very famous ones, such as ‘A man touched down on the moon’ and ‘a preacher told a people ‘We shall overcome. ’† He uses these exophoric references effectively, to remind the audience about the situations they have overcome, which inspires them. Also, when he makes these references, he doesn’t clearly state the event but vaguely describes it. He does this to make the audience think about what he is saying, but at the same time not to undermine them by being too clear. In the reference ‘A man touched down on the moon’, he uses the word ‘man’ which is much more inclusive than a person’s name, and it makes the audience feel united in that event and as if they were a part of it. Furthermore, when he gives the quotation of ‘we shall overcome’, everyone immediately recognises that famous quote, and relates to MLK. Obama also picks this quote out in particular, as it is about overcoming which is the main topic of his speech and in the way it is said, it sounds like a statement. This is effective as it reinforces and adds credibility to what he says, which means the audience are more likely to accept it. During the speech, Obama’s tone and body language varies. For example, when he is giving an anecdote, he talks in a calm manner with long sentences, few pauses and no hand gestures, ‘At a time when women’s voices were silenced and their hopes dismissed, she lived to see them stand up†¦ ’ Then when he starts to make a point his tempo rises and he uses sentences with many pauses with also strong hand gestures, ‘That while we breathe, we hope, and where we are met with cynicism, and doubt†¦ This is effective as it shows emphasis on the points that are very important and makes them easier to remember; also it shows a contrast between the main points of the speech and the anecdotes. In the Obama’s speech he uses few religious references, such as ‘Thank you, God bless you, and may God Bless the United States of America. ’ He says this because he himself is religious, but also America is a strongly Christian country and he targets those in audience who are religious. This effective as it gives impression that God is on their side and motivates people. Also the way Obama says that at the end of the speech is similar to how a priest would end his speech in a Church, which again gives it a very holy and religious feeling. During the speech Obama shows advances in many things, such as technology. He shows this by saying â€Å"no cars on the road or planes in the sky† and â€Å"she touched her finger to a screen, and cast her vote,† by saying this he contrasts the past with the present, and it makes the audience think how far they have came, in terms of technology in a short space of time. Another advance he shows us is in equality, by saying â€Å"when someone like her couldn’t vote for two reasons – because she was a woman and because of the colour of her skin,† he reminds the audience of the time when it use to happen. This effective because it shows change, by contrasting the past with present, and he shows this change to show the American people that if they did it then why can’t they do it again, which motivates them. Also when he says â€Å"couldn’t vote for two reasons – †¦ there is a slight pause, he does this as the audience know what’s coming next which makes them think. Throughout the speech, Obama’s main buzz phrase has been â€Å"Yes We can. † This phrase is good as it is only three letters long and is repeated through the speech several times, making it easy to remember. He uses these when making a point, such as â€Å"America can change. Yes we can† and â€Å"nation conquers fe ar itself with a New deal, new jobs and a new sense of common purpose. Yes we can,† this motivates the people and gets them on his side. Also Obama uses this phrases right at the end of point or paragraph, so the audience know its coming and after it’s said they can repeated the phrase, this is why he leaves a short pause after each point for the audience to react . This is effective as it makes the audience think and concentrate on the speech. The word â€Å"yes† in the phrase as adverb shows the agreement between him and the people. The word â€Å"we† as a first person plural pronoun denotes as collective force or unity and the word â€Å"can† as a modal auxiliary verb suggests the ability or possibility of someone doing something. How to cite Obama Victory Speech 2008, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Sociology Social Disadvantage or Moral Failing †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about theSociologyfor Social Disadvantage or Moral Failing. Answer: Introduction The poverty rate in United States has fluctuated with time and the reasons and factors leading to poverty vary from individual to individual. Sociologists tend to explain poverty by means of cultural dependency, social disadvantage or moral failing. Some have also explained that poverty occurs due to unequal distribution of resource and opportunities in society (Williams et al., 2013).This report particularly looks at poverty in United States based on demographics and common characteristics of race, location and standard of living. The identification of particular group living in poverty and the common characteristics they possess will help to relate the finding to social problems and individual life status. It will evaluate whether individual factor or social factor results in poverty in certain groups in UK. Current Statistics on Poverty in United States In United States, the poverty is measured by poverty threshold which is the lack of those goods and services which is necessary for all members of mainstream society. This measure is adjusted based on inflation using the consumer price index. According to the official U.S. Census Bureau report of 2015, the poverty rate in U.S. is 13.5% and the 43.1 million people were living in poverty in that year. In most demographic group, the number of people living in poverty decreased from 2014 to 2015 (UC Davis Center for Poverty Research, 2017). The poverty rate is also higher in rural areas and inner locations of U.S. compared to other urban areas. The highest poverty rate was seen in California and in contrast, the lowest rate was seen in New Hampshire and Minnesota. Poverty Rates by Demographics and other Characteristics The U.S Census Bureau determine the poverty group people by calculating minimum amount of income needed to meet basic need based on size and composition of families. The group affected by poverty mainly includes homeless people, children, immigrants and autistic people. By race, the highest poverty rate is seen in American Indians, Alaskan native and African Americans. For example in 2014, 15.5 million children were living in poverty and more than 4.6 million among them were under 5 year age. Based on poverty by race, highest number of poor children was from Hispanic race compared to other race. In term of data on poverty rate by sex, large number of female was in poverty than in mean and this was mostly seen in elderly women. On the other hand, the poverty rate by location or residential area type revealed that poverty rate increased in suburban areas and decreased in rural areas. Considering different region of United States, the poverty rate was high in the South U.S. compared to other region (Institute for Research on Poverty | University of WisconsinMadison, 2017). Cause of Poverty in United States Sociological theory explains poverty by means of social structure and individual factors. With the change in time, the welfare system varied and it mainly includes factors like culture of worklessness, troubled families and sociopolitical system to explain poverty. There is also association of poverty with individual behavior such as unemployment and other family issues also lead to poverty. As poverty also occurs as a result of economic stratification, sociologist explains poverty by conflict theory and structural functionalist theory. Conflict theorists are of the opinion that stratification harm the society and unequal distribution creates economic advantage and disadvantage for different groups (Stratification, 2016). This section particularly analyzes the reason for poverty in certain groups with high poverty rate. There are many factors that have made certain group poor in United States. The main factors related to poverty included income level, unemployment, family type, ethnicity and policies. Poverty reports have shown that poverty rate is high in African Americans and Hispanic origin people compared to non-Hispanic Whites. The rate of poverty in minority groups occurs due to socioeconomic deprivation in this group of people. This minority group are mostly unemployed, have lower education and larger risk of being prisoners. It reflects that their demographic characteristics are similar to those of disadvantaged groups which explain the reason for being poor. They are also affected by discriminatory policies which prohibits their social development and standard of living. Hence, it reflects that income unequally distributed among leading to gap in well-being of ethnic and racial groups (Gradn, 2012). Poverty reports have also shown that poverty rate is high in immigrants and immigrants group mainly include Hispanic, Black, Asian and Whites. Immigrants account for 26.1% uninsured person in United States and this is due low level of education in them. The income and earning of immigrants is affected by poor skills and earning capacity. The implementation of appropriate reform policy is necessary to improve the earning capacity of immigrants despite their nativity (Marable, 2015). The United States has also pointed out to high rate of child poverty in United States with about 15 million children living in below federal poverty threshold. This reflect that the poverty rate is high because 43% children live in low-income families and their parents are struggling to make a living. They have low wages or unstable form of employment which impeded childrens ability to learn and expose them to social, emotional and behavioral risk. Children living in poverty are also at risk of poor heath particularly mental health due to persistent poverty. Hence, poverty is great threat to well-being of children and focus on this group is important to improve the poverty threshold of United States (NCCP | Child Poverty 2017). Conclusion From the report on poverty status and characteristics in United States, it is understood that minority groups, immigrants and children are the major contributor of poverty rate in the country. The study of poverty reports revealed poverty by demographics, region and residential areas. Furthermore exploration of the reason for poverty revealed common characteristics of race, social inequality and poor employment in certain group. From the sociological perspective, poverty is significantly posing risk for children and urgent public action is required to alleviate poverty by means of effective policy and social reforms for vulnerable group. Reference Gradn, C. (2012). Poverty among minorities in the United States: Explaining the racial poverty gap for Blacks and Latinos.Applied Economics,44(29), 3793-3804. Marable, M. (2015).How capitalism underdeveloped Black America: Problems in race, political economy, and society. Haymarket Books. NCCP | Child Poverty. (2017).Nccp.org. Retrieved 23 February 2017, from https://www.nccp.org/topics/childpoverty.html Stratification, S. C. (2016). Functionalism and Stratification, Socio-Cultural Evolution and Revolution. What is the current poverty rate in the United States? - UC Davis Center for Poverty Research. (2017).Poverty.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved 23 February 2017, from https://poverty.ucdavis.edu/faq/what-current-poverty-rate-united-states Who is poor? | Institute for Research on Poverty | University of WisconsinMadison. (2017).Irp.wisc.edu. Retrieved 23 February 2017, from https://www.irp.wisc.edu/faqs/faq3.htm Williams, F. (Ed.). (2013).Language and poverty: Perspectives on a theme. Elsevier.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Erotic Films on Television Analysis on the Debate on Its Influence on Youth Essay Example

Erotic Films on Television: Analysis on the Debate on Its Influence on Youth Essay Erotic films on television: analysis on the debate on its influence on youth A term paper submitted in partial fulfillment of MAC 322 Mass Media and Society Akinyele Omolola 10/52HN009 May 2, 2013 Contents Background1 Theorietical framework4 Global evidence of television influence on the behaviour of young people7 Debate11 Change in Attitudes11 Erotic Films on Television and Sexual Violence14 Premature or inadvertent exposure to sexually explicit content19 Sexual Addiction21 The inappropriate acceptance and adoption of non-mainstream sexual practices22 References26 Background Few inventions of the Twentieth Century were more remarkable, more powerful, or more influential in the daily lives of citizens throughout the world than television. That influence grows daily as more and more areas of the world have access to television and the number of televisions per household increases. The average household has the television set turned on 8 hours and 14 minutes daily. For many children, Television has become the second parent, and to some, more powerful and influential even than their real life parents. The average time children, adolescents and young adults spend watching TV each day is two to four hours. We will write a custom essay sample on Erotic Films on Television: Analysis on the Debate on Its Influence on Youth specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Erotic Films on Television: Analysis on the Debate on Its Influence on Youth specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Erotic Films on Television: Analysis on the Debate on Its Influence on Youth specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer To say that television programming has a profound social impact is a great understatement. Television can be a source of good or evil. At its best, it is educational and entertaining. At worst, it is prurient and frightening. It can be provocative, but it can also be mind numbing, as well. Harm from television programming is hotly debated in some quarters. The question of whether television programming harms, and that is a question with which the world is wrestling now, is, in my judgment, really a question of whether television programming influences. Shows depicting violence, sex, and profanity influence. Television shapes the attitudes, outlook, and morality of its viewers. This is not mere conjecture; advertisers know this and are willing to pay vast sums of money because of it. Erotic films are everywhere as illustrated by (Struthers, 2009) â€Å"I put on self imposed blinders as I wade through tantalizing advertisements with Victoria’s Secret models in the margins of my weather forecast. My Internet service provider’s homepage is littered with dating services (â€Å"Hot Single Girls in Your Neighbourhood Looking for Love! ) and my sports websites have galleries of scantily clad cheerleaders. If I watch a soccer match on television with my children, I have to be vigilant to change the channel when commercials for Viagra are aired. In a world that has been hyper sexualized, it is hard to get through the day without being battered and numbed by the intrusions of erotic films. † This is further confirmed by (Sarracino amp; Scott, 2008, p. xii) â€Å"porn is a cultural trend affecting all age groups, all races, and all classes, and that virtually every aspect of ordinary day-to-day life is being shaped by porn. It’s not, then, much that porn has become mainstream, which we often hear, as that the mainstream has become porned. Increasingly†¦we live porn in our daily lives. Although, this study is on erotic movies, it should be noted that erotic movie has no clear definition â€Å"What’s erotic to you is art to me,† Erotic is in the eye of the beholder. Many argue that what is erotic is culturally defined and that culture changes. Erotic refers to art or literature intended to arouse sexual desire by portraying sex in an explicit way. It is a synonym of pornography, sexually explicit material (SEM) and porn. In this paper it would be used interchangeably with those terms. Logically, worldwide there have been thousands of studies about the television’s sexual content showing that the share of sexual scenes on TV is very high, from cartoons to sports news. Television, which has an enormous influence on the audience, holds a great responsibility for the education of the people. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the debate on the influence of erotic films on young people. Theoretical framework Sexual messages on the television can have both immediate and long-term effects. Viewing a television program may change a persons immediate state by inducing arousal, leading to inhibition of impulses, or activating thoughts or associations. It may also contribute to enduring learned patterns of behaviour, cognitive scripts and schemas about sexual interactions, attitudes, and beliefs about the real world. Immediate effects are the focus of Zillmann’s arousal theory. According to that theory, if television content produces emotional and physiological arousal, some type of behaviour is likely to follow. Whether or not that behaviour is â€Å"sexual† depends on both the personality of the viewer and the environmental circumstances. Because arousal is non-specific, it can also lead to aggression, altruism, or other forms of behaviour if the conditions are conducive to those behaviours. Theories based on observational learning and information processing emphasize lasting effects of exposure to media content. Bandura’s observational learning theory suggests that children will learn not only the mechanics of sexual behaviour, but the contexts, motives and consequences portrayed. They will attend to and learn from models that are attractive, powerful, rewarded, and similar to them. Children do not usually act immediately on what they learn from television; instead, they store such knowledge to be used when their own circumstances elicit it. Berkowitz’s cognitive neoassociationist theory was proposed as a way of understanding effects of violent content, but it appears equally applicable to sexual content. Although similar to observational learning theory in many respects, the theory gives a central place to the viewer’s emotional responses as the links between learned media content and later behaviour. As emotional responses to sexual content are likely to be intense, this idea seems especially Pertinent to â€Å"effects† of such content. Huesmann argues that children learn social and sexual schemas (expectations) and scripts for sexual interactions from exposure to television. This view implies that it is important to examine what is learned about the circumstances for sexual activity, communication, negotiation, and decision-making. Scripts and schemas learned in childhood have particular importance as the child grows because young people may not have well-developed ideas and understandings of sexuality. Content viewed later may modify such schemas or reinforce them, but will not have quite the â€Å"primacy† of what was initially learned. Cultivation theory (Signorielli amp; Morgan, 1990) also predicts that mass media convey images of socially normative behaviour and that young people absorb impressions and assumptions about whom, when, how often, under what circumstances sexual interactions occur. All of these theories recognize that effects of this phenomenon are not unidirectional. Children are not just recipients of television messages; they choose the content to which they are exposed, and they interpret the content within their own frames of reference. But, some theories give prime importance to the active nature of viewers in selecting and using media. From this Viewpoint, â€Å"effects† result from availability of content to serve different functions and from understanding the viewer’s interactions with the medium. Cognitive developmental theory is especially important for the topic of sexuality because of the very large age differences in both comprehension and interest in sex. Collins’ research on children’s understanding of violent content has demonstrated that children interpret media content according to their level of cognitive development generally and their knowledge about the content more particularly. Similarly, one would expect children in late childhood, early, and middle adolescence to interpret and react to erotic films on television very differently. In the communications field, â€Å"uses and gratifications† theories emphasize that people use media to serve different functions. If we want to understand the â€Å"effects† of sexual content, we must know why a young person views it. Is that individual looking for information, for arousal (either alone or with a partner), for rebellion (forbidden fruit), or for something else? Global evidence of television influence on the behaviour of young people A considerable body of research from developed countries, particularly the US, suggests that the visual media influence a broad range of attitudes and behaviours among young people and may exacerbate risky practices. These studies have largely followed the â€Å"media-effects† model and explored the impact of the television on certain risk-taking behaviours such as engaging in sex, use of tobacco and alcohol, aggression and violence as well as such other behaviours as adopting new clothing styles and mannerisms, among others. Studies conducted in the US, in the 1970s and 1980s, have shown a consistent relationship between media viewing and sexual behaviour. For example, a study that compared pregnant and non-pregnant girls found that girls who had become pregnant were more likely to have been watching soap operas prior to the pregnancy (Corder-Bolz, 1981), while another linked TV watching preferences to earlier initiation of sexual experience (Peterson and Kahn, 1984). Further, while viewing media with sexual content was observed to be positively linked to the viewer’s permissive attitude toward pre-marital sex (Greeson and Williams, 1986), viewing more sexual content on television was found to increase the likelihood of engaging in sexual intercourse among teens (Brown and Newcomer, 1991). Reviewing the impact of the media on adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviours, Escobar-Chaves and her colleagues found that exposure to NC-17 rated films (a rating that prohibits admission of anyone who is 17 or under into a theatre) increased the likelihood of having multiple sexual partners, engaging in sex more often, testing positive for HIV AIDS, and having more negative attitudes toward condom use (Escobar-Chaves et al. , 2004). Based on their study with adolescents, Brown and her colleagues suggested that sexually explicit media act as a sexual â€Å"super peer† for teenage youth by serving as a readily available and accessible source of sexual information in the absence of significant counsel from family and school (Brown et al. , 2005). In a subsequent study, Brown et al used â€Å"sexual media diet† (SMD), an index of exposure to sexual content in the mass media, to explore media influences on adolescent sexual behaviour (Brown et al. , 2006). Their longitudinal studies revealed that white adolescent girls in the top 20% of a random sample of SMD density when 12 to 14 years old, were more than twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse at age 14 to 16 as girls who had SMDs with densities in the lower 80%. On the other hand, black teens reported a greater influence of â€Å"perceptions of their parents’ expectations and their friends’ sexual behaviour† than what they saw and heard in the media, a finding that points to the need to identify the cultural and social factors that account for apparently large variations in young people’s vulnerability to media influence. Strasburger and Donnerstein also support the view that individual characteristics of young people such as race, ethnicity and family background have not been explored well enough to understand their relationship with media consumption and subsequent influence (Strasburger and Donnerstein, 1999). A WHO study further noted that â€Å"films have created a yearning for romance† and that to be labelled ‘boyfriend’ or ‘girlfriend’ implies â€Å"popularity, coolness and modernity†. Findings also showed that gangster erotic films are particularly popular with college students and dialogues from these films are used in everyday conversations with friends; when combined with the right kind of accessories (such as motorbikes and mobile phones) this not only becomes a style statement but an indicator of belonging to a youth sub-culture (WHO, 2003). Among efforts to study the influence of the visual media on sexual behaviour is a study of 300 school girls in Pune which found a strong correlation between their TV watching habits and involvement with boys (Joshi, 2005). Other studies have reported that adolescents â€Å"select† songs and speaking styles from films and TV for use as â€Å"scripts† in heterosexual interactions (Belaku Trust, 2004). Schwartz found that the media can provide information on fashion, beauty and body satisfaction, and has the potential to provide positive images for adolescents in the process of their social development and emerging sense of identity, of which fashion decisions are a part (Schwartz, 2004). Debate Change in Attitudes The literature on the effects of sexual media content also includes correlational studies in which young people’s naturally occurring exposure to the media is used to compare their attitudes and behaviours. Strasburger and Wilson (2002, p. 177) note that of six studies on the relationship between onset of sexual intercourse and amount of sexual content viewed on television, only one is longitudinal and four are more than a decade old. Nevertheless, most studies demonstrate measurable effects. One study found that teenagers whose television diet includes higher proportions of sexual content were also more likely to have engaged in sexual intercourse. Another study found a correlation between young women’s exposure to music videos and their premarital sex (Huston et al. p. 14, 27). A recent US study of 18 to 20 year old students concluded that greater exposure to sexual content on television correlated with a belief that one’s peers are sexually active and a more favourable attitude towards recreational sex (Strasburger amp; Wilson 2002, p. 159). Given that such studies are correlational, it is equally plausible that sexual content on television teaches such attitudes, that individuals with such attitudes are drawn to watching programs with sexual content, or that both patterns are caused by other external factors. Dr. Mary Anne Layden, co-director of the Sexual Trauma and Psychopathology Programme at the University of Pennsylvanias Centre for Cognitive Therapy, has shown that exposure to erotic films on television on a regular basis is extremely harmful. Layden said there is a correlation between viewing pornographic materials even soft porn on television and sexual behaviour mong individuals. Viewing erotic films leads to, what Dr. Layden calls, â€Å"permission-giving beliefs,† which she describes as beliefs that claim the action the person is doing is Normal, does not hurt anyone and that everyone is doing them. The individual involved, she notes, does not think they need to change their behaviour. She cites the fo llowing examples of such beliefs: that sex is a consumer commodity that can be bought, sold or stolen at anytime; sex is a male entitlement; male sexuality is viciously narcissistic, predatory and out of control; women enjoy degrading sex and womens bodies are just sexual entertainment for men. She notes that college students who continue to watch pornography can adapt these beliefs, which lead to developing a pattern of unhealthy sexual relationships and dangerous sexual behaviour. Prolonged exposure to pornography, Layden says, can even lead to a high likelihood to commit rape. Several experimental studies document changes in attitudes and knowledge among adolescents exposed to sexual media content when compared to a control group who are not shown the same material. They have found: †¢ adolescents who saw portrayals of pre-, extra- or non-marital sexual relations rate these portrayals as less bad than did peers who saw portrayals of marital sexual relations or non-sexual relations between adults; †¢ Teenagers who saw TV scenes with sexual content learnt terms referring to such activities as homosexuality and prostitution; †¢ Exposure to music videos is associated with greater acceptance of premarital sex; †¢ students shown programs containing information about pregnancy and menstruation, for example, knew more factual information than those who were not shown this material (Huston et. l. 1998, p. 14). One can conclude from the small body of research evidence described that exposure to sexual media content such as on television can change young viewers’ attitudes and knowledge, and there is weak evidence of a relationship between television viewing and sexual behaviour and beliefs (Huston et. al 1998, p. 16). However, i t is only a set of ethical, moral or political values which allows us to determine whether these effects are good, bad or neutral (Thornburgh amp; Lin 2002, p. 75). For example, moral conservatives may judge young women’s premarital sex as negative given their belief in the desirability of sex only within marriage, while advocates of comprehensive sexuality education may be more concerned with whether this sex was consenting and safe or coerced and risky. Finally, media messages have more influence if young people perceive them to be accurate, realistic and high quality (Huston et. al 1998, pp. 15-16). Erotic Films on Television and Sexual Violence There is a more substantial body of research evidence on the impact of sexual content and pornography among young adults and adults in general. A wide range of studies has been conducted among young people aged 18 to 25, often populations of youths in tertiary. In terms of the impact of erotic films, one of the most important areas of social concern has been its impact on men’s sexual behaviour towards women, and particularly male sexual aggression or rape. This concern is expressed neatly in the now-famous slogan advanced by some feminist anti-pornography advocates in the 1980s: ‘Pornography is the theory, and rape the practice’ (Morgan 1980, p. 139). In other words, for these advocates, pornography or any sexually explicit material plays a causal role in sexual violence against women, although other feminist (and non-feminist) commentators dispute this. Thus many empirical studies on pornography’s impact concern the question of sexual aggression. Most focus on the attitudes and behaviours of males, driven in part by the recognition that it is males who are responsible for the majority of sexual assaults, whether against females or other males. If exposure to erotic films on television does shape sexually violent attitudes and behaviours, then this is an important inclusion in our assessment of the impact of pornography on young people. Empirical research among adults on erotic films and sexual aggression can be divided into four types, according to two dimensions of the study. First, some studies are experimental, often in laboratory conditions, and involve testing the impact of exposure to pornography on participants’ attitudes or aggressive behaviour; other studies are correlational and involve the investigation of possible relationships between regular viewing of erotic films (in everyday life) and attitudes or aggressive behaviour. Furthermore, among correlational studies, some compare the use of pornography and other forms of erotica by people convicted of sexually violent crimes with that by non-criminals, while others compare pornography use and reported sexual aggression among non-criminals. The second dimension concerns the dependent variable. Some studies focus on factors believed to affect sexual aggression, particularly attitudes supportive of rape, while others focus on sexually aggressive behaviours themselves (Malamuth et. al pp. 41-42). There is considerable disagreement in the literature on erotic films regarding the significance of the existing body of empirical evidence, with some authors arguing for a clear relationship between exposure to erotic films and sexual aggression and others saying there is no effect. However, the application to existing empirical studies of summary techniques or ‘meta-analysis’ does find consistent relationships. Malamuth et. al (2000) integrates the findings of meta-analytic summaries of experimental and naturalistic research. They find that there is consistent and reliable evidence that exposure to or consumption of erotic films is related to male sexual aggression against women. This association is strongest for violent erotic films and still reliable for nonviolent erotic films, particularly by frequent users (Malamuth et. al 2000, p. 53). The authors also rebut claims, for example by Fisher and Grenier (1994), that there have not been any reliable connections found between the viewing of erotic films and sexual aggression. In arguing that there is an association between the use of erotic films and sexual aggression, there are two caveats to note. First, erotic films and shows on television are not the sole determinant of men’s violence against women. Contemporary scholarship shows a growing emphasis on multivariate explanations of men’s violence against women in which it is assumed that violence is ‘a multifaceted phenomenon grounded in interplay among personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors’ (Heise 1998, pp. 263–264). Violence against women is more likely in cultures where manhood is culturally defined as linked to dominance, toughness or male honour (Heise 1998, p. 77). It is more likely to be practised by men who identify with traditional images of masculinity and male gender role privilege, have hostile and negative sexual attitudes towards women, believe in rape stereotypes, see violence as manly and desirable, and are attached to male peers who legitimate abuse of women. Nevertheless, sexually explicit movies on Television clearly play a role in helping foster the kinds of att itudes and values which may predispose some men to rape women. Second, erotic films on television are ot the only important source of sexist and violence-supportive discourses and representations, other type of television programmes and advertisements are also effective teachers of gender stereotyped and rape-supportive attitudes (Strasburger amp; Wilson 2002, p. 164). However, analysis of the 13 comparative studies on this question finds that convicted sex offenders do not use erotic films more frequently than men from the noncriminal general population, and their age of first exposure is not significantly lower (Malamuth et. l 2000, pp. 47-48). One complexity here is that the noncriminal general population includes individuals who have committed sexual offences but have not been convicted. Given the very low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction of sexual assaults relative to other crimes, one may be comparing a population of known sex offenders with another population wh ich includes unknown sex offenders. However, some differences are evident between offenders and non-offenders in their relationships to erotic films. Compared to non offenders, convicted rapists are more likely to perform a sexual act (such as masturbation, consensual sex, or criminal sex) after viewing violent erotic films on Television, are more aroused by portrayals of non consenting sex and are less aroused by portrayals of consenting sex (Malamuth et. al 2000, p. 47-48). Finally, several studies have investigated potential relationships between men’s erotic films consumption and men’s self-reported likelihood of raping or sexually harassing a woman if they were assured of not being caught or punished. This is a measure of attraction to sexual aggression rather than of sexual aggression itself. These studies find that men who watch television programmes with hardcore, violent, or rape erotic scenes, and men who are high-frequency users of pornography, are also significantly more likely than non-users or low-frequency users to report that they would rape or sexually harass a woman if they knew they could get away with it (Malamuth et. al 2000, pp. 51-52). Early arguments for erotic films’ causal role in rape cited as one form of proof the fact that some convicted rapists had erotic films in their possession or claimed that ‘porn made me do it’ (Strossen 1995, p. 256). . Premature or inadvertent exposure to sexually explicit content Depictions of sexual behaviour may be emotionally disturbing to the individual who encounters them. In the first place, children and adolescents may be shocked, troubled, or disturbed by premature or inadvertent encounters with sexually explicit material per se. They may be at an age or developmental level where they are unaware of and inexperienced in sexual activities. Or they may be unfamiliar with or uninterested in sexually explicit details so that involuntary exposure to such portrayals is surprising and upsetting. A recent survey found that 53 per cent of young people aged 11 to 17 had seen or experienced something on the television they thought was offensive or disgusting (Aisbett 2001). Pornography dominated the list of content reported, although there is insufficient detail to determine whether the material was troubling because it was sexually explicit or because it was offensive in some more particular way. the young people said that they felt ‘sick’, ‘yuck’ ‘disgusted’, ‘repulsed’ and ‘upset’, some were annoyed because the erotic films unexpected and difficult to remove from the screen, and others reported feeling ‘uncomfortable’, ‘shocked’, ‘embarrassed’ or ‘degraded’ by the experience (Aisbett2001, p. 41). One should not conclude from this study however that adolescents necessarily are disturbed by sexually explicit depictions. Two recent American studies found that 25 to 30 percent of children aged 10 to 17 have had at least one unwanted exposure to erotic films on television in the last year, but also found that the majority of them were not distressed by these. Finally, some children inadvertently exposed to erotic films on television are upset not by its content but by the potential reactions of their parents (Aisbett 2001, p. 41). They are concerned that their parents may catch them with this content on screen, may be disturbed by this or may not believe that the sexually explicit material was encountered by accident. In turn, some parents are less concerned by the sexual explicitness per se of the material to which their children are exposed but more worried by the fact that exposure occurs in settings without parental guidance and the opportunity to explain how such material is inappropriate and to place it in a context (Thornburgh amp; Lin 2002, p. 168). Sexual Addiction Psychologist, Dr. Victor B. Cline has described his observations of pornography’s negative effects after years of treating sexual illnesses: â€Å"In over 25 years I have treated approximately 350 males afflicted with sexual addictions (or sometimes referred to as sexual compulsions). In about 94% of the cases, I have found that erotic films on television was a contributor, facilitator, or direct causal agent in the acquiring of these sexual illnesses. I note that Patrick Carnes, the leading U. S. researcher in this area, reports similar findings. In his research on nearly 1000 sex addicts, as reported in his Dont Call it Love: Recovery from Sexual Addictions (Bantam Books, 1991): ‘Among all addicts surveyed 90% of the men and 77% of the women reported pornography as significant to their addiction. ’ I found that nearly all of my adult sexual addicts problems started with porn exposure in childhood or adolescence (8 years and older). The typical pattern was exposure to mild porn early with increasing frequency of exposure and eventual later addiction. This was nearly always accompanied by masturbation. This was followed by an increasing desensitization of the materials pathology, escalation to increasingly aberrant and varied kinds of materials, and eventually to acting out the sexual fantasies they were exposed to. While this did on occasion include incest, child molestation, and rape, most of the damage was through compulsive infidelity (often infecting the wife with Herpes or other venereal diseases) and a destruction of trust in the marital bond which in many cases led to divorce and a breaking up of the family. The inappropriate acceptance and adoption of non-mainstream sexual practices In the case of the third type of potential negative effect, the harm is seen to be associated with the practice itself. Sexual behaviours involving bondage, sadomasochism, trans-sexuality, urination, defecation, bestiality and rape are widely regarded as harmful, immoral or unethical in and of themselves, and indeed some are criminal offences. At the same time, cultural judgements of their acce ptability can be internally complex. For example, while the majority of individuals condemn rape or sexual assault, one in seven young people expresses support for beliefs that condone or legitimate rape and sexual coercion. This is because behaviours such as sadomasochism, bestiality and rape are judged by many commentators to be offensive by their nature; portrayals of these behaviours are also seen as harmful. In the first place, such portrayals involve enacting the behaviour in the sense that the act has to be practised if it is to be photographed or filmed. Moreover, portrayals of ‘extreme’ sexual behaviour may incite, eroticise and give legitimacy to it. Thus, the argument goes, it is inappropriate for anyone to see or indeed produce such portrayals, and it is particularly harmful for minors to view such portrayals because they are still in the process of emotional and sexual development, are impressionable and are therefore more vulnerable to influence. In viewing images of non-mainstream sexual behaviour, children and adolescents may come to see such abhorrent practices as acceptable or desirable and may adopt them themselves. This argument therefore depends on two claims regarding the likely impact of exposure and the ethical status of the sexual practices at stake. One version of this argument has been around for a long time, the notion of the ‘recruitment’ of children into homosexuality. A longstanding concern among conservative religious advocates has been that children are recruited into homosexuality through its ‘promotion’, including sexually explicit homosexual imagery. In addition, some parents may be concerned for example that their adolescent son or daughter, ‘confused’ about their developing sexuality, will adopt a gay or lesbian identity following exposure to homosexual materials. However, there is no evidence that being exposed to sexually explicit materials, or indeed any kind of representation, can change a person’s overall sexual orientation, their attraction to one sex or the other. Indeed, systematic efforts to convert individuals from homosexual to heterosexual using therapy, electric shock treatment and other ‘treatments’ have a long record of failure (Allgeier amp; Allgeier 1995, pp. 506-508). Thus, the adolescent son’s or daughter’s likelihood of developing a homosexual identity is no more (or less) likely following exposure to homosexual representations. On the other hand, if the son or daughter does have access to information which is supportive of sexual diversity, they are more likely to accept their own fluctuating desires regardless of their final sexual orientation. In the context of a silence about homosexuality in their everyday lives, young men and women use erotic films to watch on Television to learn what to do when having sex, to improve their knowledge about sexual behaviour or as a substitute for sexual relationships. There is not yet a body of evidence ith which to assess with any certainty whether young people exposed to eroticised images or accounts of anal intercourse, bondage, bestiality and so on are more likely to adopt these than young people who have not viewed such material. Conclusion There are good theoretical reasons to believe that television and other media can play an important role in educating children and adolescents about sexuality. Media portrayals surround children, and young people are intensely i nterested in sexuality, romance, and relationships. The few experimental studies show that television has the potential to change viewers’ attitudes and knowledge. There is also some evidence that such personal factors as interest in sexual content, level of understanding, perceived reality, and parental mediation modify the influence of sexual messages. Much more empirical work is needed to substantiate the claim that naturally occurring sexual content in the media actually does cause changes

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Society of United Irishmen

Society of United Irishmen The Society of United Irishmen was a radical nationalist group founded by Theobald Wolfe Tone in October 1791 in Belfast, Ireland. The groups original purpose was to achieve profound political reform in Ireland, which was under the domination of Britain. Tones position was that various religious factions of Irish society had to unite, and political rights for the Catholic majority would have to be secured. To that end, he sought to bring together elements of society which ranged from prosperous Protestants to impoverished Catholics. When the British sought to suppress the organization, it transformed into a secret society which essentially became an underground army. The United Irishmen hoped to gain French aid in liberating Ireland, and planned an open revolt against the British in 1798. The Rebellion of 1798 failed for a number of reasons, which included the arrest of United Irishmen leaders early in that year. With the rebellion crushed, the organization essentially dissolved. However, its actions and the writings of its leaders, particularly Tone, would inspire future generations of Irish nationalists. Origins of the United Irishmen The organization which would play such a large part in Ireland of the 1790s began modestly as the brainchild of Tone, a Dublin lawyer and political thinker. He had written pamphlets espousing his ideas for securing the rights of Irelands oppressed Catholics. Tone had been inspired by the American Revolution as well as the French Revolution. And he believed reform based on political and religious liberty would bring about reform in Ireland, which was suffering under a corrupt Protestant ruling class and a British government which supported the oppression of the Irish people. A series of law had long restricted the Catholic majority of Ireland. And Tone, though a Protestant himself, was sympathetic to the cause of Catholic emancipation. In August 1791 Tone published an influential pamphlet setting forth his ideas. And in October 1791 Tone, in Belfast, organized a meeting and the Society of United Irishmen was founded. A Dublin branch was organized a month later. Evolution of the United Irishmen Though the organization seemed to be little more than a debating society, the ideas coming out of its meetings and pamphlets began to seem quite dangerous to the British government. As the organization spread into the countryside, and both Protestants and Catholics joined, the United Men, as they were often known, appeared to be a serious threat. In 1794 the British authorities declared the organization illegal. Some members were charged with treason, and Tone fled to America, settling for a time in Philadelphia. He soon sailed to France, and from there the United Irishmen began seeking French help for an invasion which would liberate Ireland. The Rebellion of 1798 After an attempt to invade Ireland by the French failed in December 1796, due to bad sailing weather, a plan was eventually made to spark a rebellion across Ireland in May 1798. By the time for the uprising came, many leaders of the United Irishmen, including Lord Edward Fitzgerald, had been arrested. The rebellion was launched in late May 1798 and failed within weeks from lack of leadership, lack of proper weapons, and a general inability to coordinate attacks on the British. The rebel fighters were mostly routed or slaughtered. The French made several attempts to invade Ireland later in 1798, all of which failed. During one such action Tone was captured while aboard a French warship. He was tried for treason by the British, and took his own life while awaiting execution. Peace was eventually restored throughout Ireland. And the Society of United Irishmen, essentially ceased to exist. However, the legacy of the group would prove strong, and later generations of Irish nationalists would take inspiration from its ideas and actions.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

The Power of Positive Thinking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Power of Positive Thinking - Essay Example When a thought feels comfortable in people’s minds, it stimulates the development of neural pathways that turn out to be extremely resilient to transition (Quilliam 21). Over time, people’s routines of thought can turn out to be so profoundly entrenched that they are conscious of how they are nourishing their minds. Notably, how an individual perceives a glass as half full or half empty reflects on his or her general viewpoint on life and themselves. A positive thinking sees the bright side of things and yields delight, health, happiness, auspicious results in life, broadens the mind, and builds skills and healthy relationships. If an individual adopts a positive mind, they train their minds to anticipate noble outcomes, growth and success. Health Benefits Researchers have continued to explore the benefits of positive thinking on people’s health. Existing research indicates that positive thinking have a myriad benefits to an individual’s health. It reduces the risks of cardiovascular diseases in spite of factors such as smoking habits, age and obesity. It also contributes to a longer lifespan, increased immunity to common cold, better adapting skills during hardships, and decreased levels of stress and depression (Mayo Clinic 1). A study carried out on college students at the begging and the end of the semester established that positive thinking is associated with low stress levels. Additionally, positive thinking lowers blood pressure and allows an individual to age gracefully. This is primarily because of reduced stress levels (Mayo Clinic 1). ii. Bringing Happiness and Healthy relationships When an individual thinks positively, he or she is surrounded by auspicious thoughts. This yields happiness, which is contagious. It makes the people that hang around an individual happy too. This also assists people shun negative thoughts and become more optimistic (Peale 32-4). On a different angle, this increases a person’s luck in love. People will accept an individual who is positive and will yield healthy and happy relationships, since they focus on the noble and favorable aspects of the other person (Quilliam 34). iii. Building skills set The benefits of positive do not just stop after feeling happy and healthy. Indeed, the most paramount benefit of positive thinking is the improved aptitude to build skills and develop resources that can be used later in life. For instance, a child who frolics, plays with colleagues and swings in branches outside develops his or her physical skills, social skills of communicating and int eracting with other people freely and creative skills of examining and exploring the world around them. In this manner, the positive feelings of play and happiness trigger the child to develop skills that are essential in daily life (Clear 1). These skills stay for a long time than the emotions that caused them. Later in life, the athletic skills obtained by the child may earn a scholarship into a college or the communications skills attained may assist him or her be a desirable and effective business manager (Byrne 27-30). The joy that prompted the exploration and generation of new capabilities is long gone in this stage, but the skills still remain. Researchers have named this phenomenon as â€Å"widen and build† because positive thoughts widens an individual’s sense of possibilities and opens his or her mind resulting to development of new skills and resources that offer value to other fields and aspects of life (Clear 1). iv. A broad sense of mind and Increased Pos sibilities When an individual thinks positively and experiences positive emotions such as joy, satisfaction and affection,